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Underground Systems: Design, Construction, Operation, and Maintenance - A Reference Book



# Underground Systems Reference Book ## Introduction Underground systems are a vital part of modern infrastructure, providing reliable and efficient services for various purposes. Underground systems can include: - Electric power distribution: Underground cables and wires that transmit electricity from power plants to consumers, avoiding overhead lines that are vulnerable to weather, accidents, and vandalism. - Telecommunications: Underground fiber optic cables and conduits that carry data and voice signals across long distances, enabling high-speed internet, phone, and television services. - Water supply and sewage: Underground pipes and tunnels that transport potable water from sources to users, and wastewater from users to treatment plants, preventing contamination and pollution of surface water bodies. - Transportation: Underground railways and roads that facilitate fast and convenient movement of people and goods, reducing traffic congestion and noise on the surface. - Oil and gas: Underground pipelines and storage tanks that deliver oil and gas from wells to refineries and terminals, minimizing environmental impacts and risks of spills and leaks. - Defense and security: Underground bunkers and shelters that protect military personnel and equipment from attacks, natural disasters, and nuclear radiation. Underground systems have many advantages over surface systems, such as: - Safety: Underground systems are less exposed to external threats, such as storms, fires, earthquakes, sabotage, and terrorism. They also reduce the risk of electrocution, flooding, explosion, and collision for workers and users. - Efficiency: Underground systems can operate at higher capacities and lower losses than surface systems, due to lower resistance, interference, and friction. They also require less maintenance and repair than surface systems, due to lower wear and tear. - Aesthetics: Underground systems preserve the natural beauty and landscape of the surface, avoiding visual clutter and obstruction. They also enhance the urban design and planning of the surface, creating more space for greenery, recreation, and development. - Sustainability: Underground systems conserve energy and resources by reducing heat loss, air pollution, water consumption, and land use. They also mitigate climate change by lowering greenhouse gas emissions and sequestering carbon dioxide. However, underground systems also face many challenges and limitations, such as: - Cost: Underground systems are more expensive to construct, operate, and maintain than surface systems, due to higher labor, material, equipment, and land acquisition costs. They also require more complex engineering and design than surface systems, due to higher technical standards and regulations. - Access: Underground systems are more difficult to access and inspect than surface systems, due to limited space, visibility, ventilation, and mobility. They also pose more health and safety hazards for workers and users than surface systems, due to higher temperature, pressure, humidity, noise, and radiation levels. - Reliability: Underground systems are more prone to failure and damage than surface systems, due to higher stress, corrosion, and erosion. They also have lower redundancy and resilience than surface systems, due to lower flexibility, modularity, and diversity. Therefore, underground systems require careful planning, management, and innovation to ensure their optimal performance and sustainability. This book aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date reference for underground system professionals, students, and enthusiasts. It covers the following topics: ## Table of Contents ### Chapter 1: History of Underground Systems This chapter traces the historical development of underground systems from ancient times to the present day. It highlights the major milestones and achievements in underground system construction and operation across different regions and sectors. ### Chapter 2: Types of Underground Systems This chapter classifies the different types of underground systems according to their functions and features. It describes the main components and characteristics of each type of underground system, such as cables, pipes, tunnels, stations, and terminals. ### Chapter 3: Design Principles of Underground Systems This chapter explains the fundamental principles and methods of underground system design. It covers the key aspects of underground system design, such as site selection, geotechnical investigation, structural analysis, hydraulic calculation, electrical simulation, and environmental assessment. ### Chapter 4: Construction Techniques of Underground Systems This chapter demonstrates the various techniques and technologies of underground system construction. It covers the main stages of underground system construction, such as excavation, support, lining, backfilling, testing, and commissioning. ### Chapter 5: Operation Strategies of Underground Systems This chapter discusses the best practices and standards of underground system operation. It covers the main functions of underground system operation, such as monitoring, control, protection, communication, and coordination. ### Chapter 6: Maintenance Methods of Underground Systems This chapter reviews the common methods and tools of underground system maintenance. It covers the main tasks of underground system maintenance, such as inspection, diagnosis, repair, replacement, and rehabilitation. ### Chapter 7: Innovation Trends of Underground Systems This chapter identifies the emerging trends and challenges of underground system innovation. It covers the main areas of underground system innovation, such as smart systems, green systems, resilient systems, and integrated systems. ### Chapter 8: Case Studies of Underground Systems This chapter presents some exemplary case studies of underground systems from different regions and sectors. It illustrates the successful applications and lessons learned from underground system projects, such as the Channel Tunnel, the Singapore Deep Tunnel Sewerage System, the Beijing Subway, the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System, and the Cheyenne Mountain Complex. ## Conclusion Underground systems are an essential part of modern infrastructure, providing reliable and efficient services for various purposes. They have many advantages over surface systems, such as safety, efficiency, aesthetics, and sustainability. However, they also face many challenges and limitations, such as cost, access, and reliability. Therefore, underground systems require careful planning, management, and innovation to ensure their optimal performance and sustainability. This book has provided a comprehensive and up-to-date reference for underground system professionals, students, and enthusiasts. It has covered the following topics: - History of underground systems - Types of underground systems - Design principles of underground systems - Construction techniques of underground systems - Operation strategies of underground systems - Maintenance methods of underground systems - Innovation trends of underground systems - Case studies of underground systems We hope that this book has enhanced your knowledge and interest in underground systems, and inspired you to explore more about this fascinating field. ## FAQs Q: What are the benefits of underground systems? A: Underground systems have many benefits over surface systems, such as: - Safety: Underground systems are less exposed to external threats, such as storms, fires, earthquakes, sabotage, and terrorism. They also reduce the risk of electrocution, flooding, explosion, and collision for workers and users. - Efficiency: Underground systems can operate at higher capacities and lower losses than surface systems, due to lower resistance, interference, and friction. They also require less maintenance and repair than surface systems, due to lower wear and tear. - Aesthetics: Underground systems preserve the natural beauty and landscape of the surface, avoiding visual clutter and obstruction. They also enhance the urban design and planning of the surface, creating more space for greenery, recreation, and development. - Sustainability: Underground systems conserve energy and resources by reducing heat loss, air pollution, water consumption, and land use. They also mitigate climate change by lowering greenhouse gas emissions and sequestering carbon dioxide. Q: What are the challenges of underground systems? A: Underground systems face many challenges and limitations over surface systems, such as: - Cost: Underground systems are more expensive to construct, operate, and maintain than surface systems, due to higher labor, material, equipment, and land acquisition costs. They also require more complex engineering and design than surface systems, due to higher technical standards and regulations. - Access: Underground systems are more difficult to access and inspect than surface systems, due to limited space, visibility, ventilation, and mobility. They also pose more health and safety hazards for workers and users than surface systems, due to higher temperature, pressure, humidity, noise, and radiation levels. - Reliability: Underground systems are more prone to failure and damage than surface systems, due to higher stress, corrosion, and erosion. They also have lower redundancy and resilience than surface systems, due to lower flexibility, modularity, and diversity. Q: What are the types of underground systems? A: Underground systems can be classified according to their functions and features into different types, such as: - Electric power distribution: Underground cables and wires that transmit electricity from power plants to consumers. - Telecommunications: Underground fiber optic cables and conduits that carry data and voice signals across long distances. - Water supply and sewage: Underground pipes and tunnels that transport potable water from sources to users, and wastewater from users to treatment plants. - Transportation: Underground railways and roads that facilitate fast and convenient movement of people and goods. - Oil and gas: Underground pipelines and storage tanks that deliver oil and gas from wells to refineries and terminals. - Defense and security: Underground bunkers and shelters that protect military personnel and equipment from attacks, natural disasters, and nuclear radiation. Q: What are the design principles of underground systems? A: The design principles of underground systems are the fundamental principles and methods that guide the engineering and planning of underground system projects. They cover the key aspects of underground system design, such as: - Site selection: The process of choosing the best location for an underground system project based on various criteria, such as geology, hydrology, topography, ## Design Principles of Underground Systems (continued) - Geotechnical investigation: The process of collecting and analyzing the physical and mechanical properties of the soil and rock layers that affect the stability and performance of an underground system project. - Structural analysis: The process of calculating and verifying the strength and deformation of the underground system components under various loads and conditions. - Hydraulic calculation: The process of estimating and optimizing the flow rate and pressure of the fluids (water, oil, gas, etc.) that are transported or stored in an underground system project. - Electrical simulation: The process of modeling and testing the electrical characteristics and behavior of the underground system components, such as cables, wires, transformers, switches, etc. - Environmental assessment: The process of evaluating and minimizing the environmental impacts and risks of an underground system project on the surface and subsurface ecosystems. ## Construction Techniques of Underground Systems The construction techniques of underground systems are the various techniques and technologies that are used to build and install underground system projects. They cover the main stages of underground system construction, such as: - Excavation: The process of removing the soil and rock materials from the underground space where an underground system project is located. Excavation can be done by different methods, such as: - Drilling and blasting: The method of using explosives to break and loosen the rock materials for excavation. - Tunnel boring machine (TBM): The method of using a large cylindrical machine with a rotating cutting head to bore through the rock materials for excavation. - Cut-and-cover: The method of digging a trench on the surface, installing an underground system component in it, and then covering it with soil or concrete for excavation. - Microtunneling: The method of using a small remote-controlled machine to dig a small-diameter tunnel for installing an underground system component for excavation. - Support: The process of providing temporary or permanent structures to prevent the collapse or movement of the excavated space or the surrounding soil and rock layers. Support can be done by different methods, such as: - Rock bolts: The method of inserting steel rods into holes drilled in the rock walls to anchor them together for support. - Shotcrete: The method of spraying a mixture of cement, sand, water, and additives onto the rock walls to form a thin layer of concrete for support. - Steel ribs: The method of placing curved steel beams along the tunnel walls to form a skeleton for support. - Concrete segments: The method of assembling precast concrete rings along the tunnel walls to form a lining for support. - Lining: The process of applying a final layer of material to the inner surface of the excavated space to protect it from water infiltration, corrosion, erosion, fire, etc. Lining can be done by different materials, such as: - Concrete: The material of using a mixture of cement, sand, water, and additives to form a solid layer of lining. Concrete can be cast in place or precast for lining. - Steel: The material of using metal plates or pipes to form a rigid layer of lining. Steel can be welded or bolted for lining. - Plastic: The material of using synthetic polymers to form a flexible layer of lining. Plastic can be extruded or molded for lining. - Backfilling: The process of filling the gap between the excavated space and the surrounding soil and rock layers with suitable materials to restore the original ground conditions. Backfilling can be done by different materials, such as: - Soil: The material of using natural earth materials to fill the gap for backfilling. Soil can be compacted or stabilized for backfilling. - Grout: The material of using a fluid mixture of cement, water, and additives to fill the gap for backfilling. Grout can be injected or pumped for backfilling. - Foam: The material of using a lightweight mixture of air, water, and chemicals to fill the gap for backfilling. Foam can be sprayed or poured for backfilling. - Testing: The process of checking and verifying the quality and performance of an underground system project before putting it into service. Testing can be done by different methods, such as: - Visual inspection: The method of using human eyes or cameras to observe and record the physical condition and appearance of an underground system project for testing. - Instrumental measurement: The method of using devices or sensors to measure and record the numerical values and parameters of an underground system project, such as pressure, temperature, voltage, current, etc., for testing. - Functional simulation: The method of using software or models to simulate and predict the operational behavior and performance of an underground system project, such as flow rate, power output, signal quality, etc., for testing. - Commissioning: The process of putting an underground system project into service and ensuring its smooth and safe operation. Commissioning can be done by different steps, such as: - Training: The step of providing the necessary knowledge and skills to the workers and users of an underground system project for commissioning. - Calibration: The step of adjusting and fine-tuning the underground system components to achieve the optimal settings and conditions for commissioning. - Coordination: The step of synchronizing and integrating the underground system components with each other and with the surface system components for commissioning. - Evaluation: The step of assessing and reviewing the underground system project after a period of operation to identify and resolve any issues or problems for commissioning. ## Operation Strategies of Underground Systems The operation strategies of underground systems are the best practices and standards that guide the management and control of underground system projects. They cover the main functions of underground system operation, such as: - Monitoring: The function of collecting and analyzing the real-time data and information of an underground system project to track its status and performance. Monitoring can be done by different means, such as: - Sensors: The means of using devices that detect and measure physical or chemical properties of an underground system project, such as temperature, pressure, flow, etc., for monitoring. - Cameras: The means of using devices that capture and transmit visual images of an underground system project, such as tunnels, stations, etc., for monitoring. - Meters: The means of using devices that count and record the quantity or rate of something in an underground system project, such as electricity, water, gas, etc., for monitoring. - Control: The function of regulating and adjusting the parameters and conditions of an underground system project to maintain its stability and efficiency. Control can be done by different means, such as: - Switches: The means of using devices that turn on or off the power or signal of an underground system component, such as cables, wires, transformers, etc., for control. - Valves: The means of using devices that open or close the flow or pressure of a fluid in an underground system component, such as pipes, pumps, tanks, etc., for control. - Signals: The means of using devices that send or receive commands or instructions to or from an underground system component, such as trains, cars, phones, etc., for control. - Protection: The function of preventing and mitigating the damage or failure of an underground system project due to internal or external causes. Protection can be done by different means, such as: - Fuses: The means of using devices that break or melt when the current exceeds a certain limit in an underground system component, such as cables, wires, transformers, etc., for protection. - Breakers: The means of using devices that interrupt or isolate the power or signal when a fault occurs in an underground system component, such as cables, wires, transformers, etc., for protection. - Alarms: The means of using devices that emit or display a warning or alert when a problem occurs in an underground system project, such as fire, flood, gas leak, etc., for protection. ## Operation Strategies of Underground Systems (continued) - Communication: The function of exchanging and sharing the data and information of an underground system project among the workers, users, and stakeholders. Communication can be done by different means, such as: - Radios: The means of using devices that transmit and receive voice or data signals through electromagnetic waves in an underground system project, such as walkie-talkies, mobile phones, etc., for communication. - Cables: The means of using devices that transmit and receive voice or data signals through electrical wires or optical fibers in an underground system project, such as landlines, internet, etc., for communication. - Displays: The means o


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